In 1971, during the 100th anniversary of national census taking, most Canadians by completing their own questionnaires are personally involved in the gigantic decennial task more than ever before. This massive project, conducted by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, requires the recruitment of some 48,000 temporary workers. Cost of the 1971 census in Canada, recognized as the biggest peace-time operation of its kind the country has ever experienced, is estimated at some thirty-five million dollars. Providing information on which electoral representation is determined, the original constitutional purpose of census taking in Canada, remains of paramount importance. Beyond this, the census today becomes the principal source of information for the measurement of social and economic progress and needs. Not only does the census tell us who we are and what we have been, it also tells us what we are becoming. Although the idea of census taking can be traced some five or six thousand years to the Babylonians in 3,800 B.C., the modern concept is recognized as having ben originated in 1665 by Jean Talon, Intendant of New France. Contrasting methods of achieving the great enumerations are evident throughout the world. In some countries, citizens are reminded of their obligations on census day by church bells, booming gong or wailing sirens. In others, the law requires virtually all persons to remain in their homes for a specific period to await the census taker.